Poster Presentation Lorne Infection and Immunity 2013

Interferon stimulated genes, Viperin and ZAP (#103)

Kate E. Goossens 1 , Alister C. Ward 2 , Andrew G. D. Bean 1
  1. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Geelong, VIC, Australia
  2. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
Emerging pathogenic viruses, such as avian influenza, pose a constant threat to both the poultry industry and to human health. To prevent these infections more effective treatment options are required, therefore, we need to develop our understanding of the immune response. Interferons (IFN) are rapidly induced following viral infection and are reported to activate hundreds of IFN stimulated genes (ISG), which display diverse antiviral activities. Nevertheless, the majority of these ISGs remain largely unidentified and uncharacterized in chickens. Here we report the characterization of two ISGs, viperin and ZAP, in the chicken. We found that structurally both ISGs are similar to their mammalian counterparts with viperin exhibiting over 70% and ZAP displaying up to 59% sequence similarity. In vitro analysis of the expression of these ISGs showed that viperin was rapidly and robustly induced in response to a number of viral and bacterial stimuli with a kinetic very similar to that of Mx, a commonly measured ISG. However, following stimulation ZAP’s profile was minimal. In vitro analysis of avian influenza infected chickens showed that both viperin and ZAP were up-regulated, with viperin displaying 25- and 150-fold increases whereas ZAP was modestly elevated at 12- and 10-fold, in the lung and spleen, respectively. Taken together, these studies help to broaden our understanding of the chicken innate immune response, which could lead to the development of better therapeutics in the future.